Further, in the school domain, school commitment, attachment or expectations, and limited educational opportunities are more influential for females' than males' gang involvement Esbensen et al. Dependent on more structured criminal organizations for their drugs, Indian Posse members are involved in street level dealing.
It is the position of these authors that without a structural response i. For Aboriginal youth, this involves the further change of seeing oneself as no longer conforming to a negative stereotype. Considering the devastating impacts of residential schools on the general Aboriginal population in Canada Canada,it is logical to expect that there are residual issues that remain between Aboriginal individuals, families and communities and the school system.
Their recruitment processes are considerably more violent than other gangs. Ngo recommends certain principles to guide the development of programs and services for this population: The historical and demographic differences between the two countries as well as the differences in political culture suggest the importance of examining the gang issue in Canada from an independent standpoint Ezeonu, Early research studies described young women as adopting fairly stereotypical gender-specific marginal roles in the gang e.
Groups of people who do not have access to legitimate work, who do not have legitimate opportunities, will innovate in order to make money and achieve success.
Aboriginal youth may be among the most marginalized in a subpopulation of marginalization i. Compared to risk factors, protective factors have received less attention in the research literature on youth gangs.
Social exclusion and devaluation related to social class, race, sexual orientation and gender. Building a profile of youth-at risk of being recruited There are many ways of explaining criminal behaviour. Nonetheless, the fact is that Aboriginal families have suffered as a result of colonization and the resultant residential school policies which separated children from parents, and attempted to destroy culture, language, lifestyle, spirituality — belonging.
Gangs in Canada therefore, must be defined in the local context. In the above respects, youth gangs are similar to other social groups. While there are Aboriginal people who are highly educated, who have well paying jobs, who do not experience the type of subordination we described above, there is also a high Aboriginal unemployment rate.
Introduction The first recorded work on gangs in Canada was a study of juveniles in street gangs in Toronto by Kenneth H. It involves moving from a position of being excluded from social opportunities to seeing oneself as deserving to be included.
22% of street-involved youth in a Canadian study reported a lifetime history of gang involvement, and 47% reported having friends in a gang.
Gang-involved men were more likely to be of Aboriginal ancestry, have grown up in government care, dealt drugs, and experienced incarceration.
An investigation into the formation and recruitment processes of Aboriginal gangs in Western Canada. PDF ( KB) Table of contents. Introduction; An investigation into the formation and recruitment processes of Aboriginal gangs in Western Canada Mercredi found that former and active members of "Aboriginal youth gangs" in prisons "take.
Perspectives in the Study of Gangs There are a number of perspectives and approaches in the sociological study of gangs. The most important are the following. - For marginalized, vulnerable, abused youth, there are many positive aspects to gang life.
Many gang members talk about having a sense of family and belonging, safety, and income. For many youth who come from communities characterized by high unemployment, entrenched poverty, and violence, gang involvement is the rational choice.
Download file "Aboriginal youth gangs" to see previous pages ently so violent in nature, the manner of recruitment and the preventive programs taken up by civil society and governments alike to weed away impressionable youth from this menace.
Ontario has the highest number of youth gangs and youth gang members in absolute terms, with youth gangs and 3, youth gang members. Saskatchewan is second (28 youth gangs and 1, members), followed by British Columbia ( youth gangs and 1, members) Footnote 9.A study of aboriginal youth gangs